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Confused Between Laptop and Notebook Computers? Here is the Answer for You!

Smartphones play a major role in today’s generation but when it comes to some presentation, softwares which cannot be installed or used in smartphones, etc. you will totally rely on laptop and computers. It means like computers are the head of technologies like smartphones and other accessories. But the limitation of a desktop computer was its immobility and that was solved by the arrival of a laptop.

Laptop computers

A Laptop computer is a portable computer which functions similar to a normal desktop computer but it can be moved and handled easily. It is light weighted but need to be handled with care as if in case your laptop slips from your hand and fells down then it would get damaged, so you need to ensure that you hold it carefully. The weight and size of the laptop depends upon the display size, hardware and other factors. There are various best laptop brands which holds the top position in the market in the field of computers. You need to select the right one from those best laptop brands as a well known laptop brand will be durable and at the same time you can find its customer service nearby to you premises.

Notebook computers

The name itself describes about the type of the computer. Notebook computer is a personal computer which is very easy to handle and hold. The size of the notebook computer is just similar to a normal notebook and that is the reason it is known as a notebook computer. Due to its small size, the weight of the computer is also less compared to a laptop. It can be placed conveniently in a backpack or a briefcase. A notebook computer is a best option for a long distance travelling as there is no issue of its weight and handling. You can use them comfortably in train, aeroplane or any other mode of transportation without creating a mess to you.

Comparison between a laptop and a notebook computer

Whether it be a laptop or a notebook computer, both helps you to stay connected. Other than notebook, there are various other computer types which help you to pursue your task easily and comfortably and they are tablets, which is also known as tab, netbook, palmtop, etc. The major reason behind the arrival of notebook, tablet, netbook is nothing but for comfortable mobility.

Although laptop is a portable device, i.e, it can be moved easily from one place to another, the weight and size of the laptop makes it difficult. Due to the larger display of screen, hardware and other factors, the weight of the laptop also rises.

Notebook computers are ultra light and can be used easily while travelling. Due to this reasons, naturally the price of a notebook computer is much expensive than a normal laptop. The major reason that people face to purchase a notebook computer is nothing but its price. Best laptop brands are quite expensive compared to a normal laptop computer with basic features and the same thing is with notebook computers. Due to its light weight, it is very easy for the users to take it anywhere they wish.

Compared to the best laptop brands, a notebook computer’s battery life is high and can be used more. The drawback of the notebook computers are nothing but it doesn’t have an internal floppy disk nor has the ability to utilize CDs or DVDs which a laptop contains. So, if you are a person who uses DVDs or CDs for the daily work then the notebook computer is not beneficial for you although it has various other facilities and features. You must also know that a notebook computer also has a minimal graphic subsystem.

Conclusion

Compared to a notebook computer, a laptop has lots of power with various features that is missing in a notebook. Some of the basic features of a laptop are as follows-

As mentioned earlier, a laptop is heavier and larger in size compared to a normal notebook computer.

It has the facility of internal DVD-RW drive, an integrated modem, etc.

The speakers of a laptop are of high quality system due to which you can also enjoy various movies, tv shows and games with best sound effects.…

Linux Operating System Advantages

Low cost:
Linux is free and much of its software’s and packages are free to use, No need to spend time and money to obtain licenses. Linux is free and released under GNU General Public License.

Stability:
Linux Operating System has high availability of stability compared to other any operating systems. There is no need of rebooting Linux System to maintain performance level. Linux had continuous up-times of hundreds and thousands of days or even more.

Performance:
Linux provides high level of performance on variety of networks. It has the high ability to handle large amount of users simultaneously.

Networking:
Linux provides a very strong support of network functionality, Linux client and server systems can be easily setup up on any running Linux Computers. It has an ability to perform tasks like network backup faster than any other operating systems in the world.

Flexibility:
Linux is very flexible robust and scalable. Linux servers can be used for high performance server applications, desktop applications, and embedded systems.

Compatibility:
It has an ability to run all common UNIX software packages and can process all types of file formats.

Wider Choice:
Linux has a large amount of Linux distributions which gives you a better choice to choose the one you like most, the core functions are the same.

Fast and easy Installation:
All Linux distributions are come with user-friendly installation.

Better use of Hard Disk:
Linux uses its resources good enough even when the hard disk is almost full.

Multitasking:
Linux is a multi-tasking & multi-user operating system. It can handle hundreds of things at the same time.

Security:
Linux is one of the most secure open source operating systems. File ownership and permissions make Linux more secure.

Open Source:
Linux is an Open source operating systems and its source code is free and open for all developers to edit and modify to make the better operating system.…

Introduction to Linux Certifications

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA):

Red Hat is pleased to announce a new addition to its line of performance-based certifications Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA). The new RHCSA credential aligns with the critical skills required of today’s system administrators. As with all of Red Hat certification exams, the RHCSA exam continues the practice of evaluating knowledge and skills through hands-on, lab-based exam.

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE):

(RHCE) Red Hat Certified Engineer is earned by a Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) who has demonstrated the knowledge, skill and ability required of senior system administrators responsible for Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems.

Red Hat Certificates of Expertise:

Certificates of Expertise are upper-level credentials available to RHCEs who pass upper-level performance-based exams. The Certificates are incremental credentials attached to one’s RHCE that demonstrate skills and knowledge in specialized areas.

Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator:

Red Hat is pleased to announce the latest addition to its lineup of performance-based certifications Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator (RHCVA). With this new certification, Red Hat extends our industry-leading certification program to the virtualization administrator. The RHCVA exam continues the Red Hat tradition of benchmarking the skills of IT professionals through hands-on skills assessments.

Red Hat Certified Datacenter Specialist:

An RHCDS has the skills and knowledge necessary to build reliable, available, scalable, and manageable solutions in mission-critical data center environments using fully-supported open source technologies from Red Hat.

Red Hat Certified Security Specialist (RHCSS):

Red Hat Certified Security Specialist (RHCSS) is a security certification that proves advanced skills in using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SELinux, and Red Hat Directory Server to meet the security requirements of today’s enterprise environment.

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA):

Red Hat’s Enterprise Architect courses provide in-depth, hands-on training for senior Linux system administrators responsible for the deployment and management of many systems in large enterprise environments. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) is a capstone certification to Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) and Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA), the most recognized, acclaimed, and mature certifications in the Linux space.…

History of Unix and Linux

Lets talk little about Linux History:
Linux has its roots in the Unix operating system. Now Unix was developed in late 1960s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. They originally designed the operating system to be something radically different than what had being used in those times.
It was presented to their peers, and it caught on really quick. Problem was AT&T was being scrutinized by the government this time for being monopoly. The lawyers were really afraid to jump into yet another area outside of the communications world. So they didn’t allow UNIX to be sold for little while. It was however allowed to be released as a demo or testing or development environment. Under these guys, that actually gained support in academic institutions like Berkeley university, California. Well about 10 years later, people started using in many ways. AT&T realised that theirs lot of money in this. And AT&T started Licensing it.
In 1979, AT&T introduce their Unix License, even for now its pretty expensive
Educational Institutes: 1 CPU = 7500 dollars (It was licensed on per CPU basis)
Commercial Institutes :1 CPU = 60,000 dollars
This licensing caused lot problems. specific with two people, one of them was Richard Stallman. Prior to Unix licensing, the source code was freely available and customizable. Richard Stallman cant bear with this licensing, and moved out to develop FSF and the GNU Project In this Unit, We gonna talk about Free Software Foundation and its role in the development of the Linux operating system or you could say GNU/Linux operating system. In 1984, Richard Stallman the founder of Free Software Foundation, founded the FSF after leaving the Artificial Intelligence laboratory at MIT University. The entire premise of the FSF is to make software freely available, redistributable, modifiable, studiable, copyable, everything you can think of possible to society, and the reason is the following i.e software at the time and still today is developed at
proprietary fashion as u can see the Microsoft Windows environment. We arent able to view the source code of softwares found on WINDOWS. As a result we are unable to learn and redistribute or modify the copy etc.
So FSF set off to essentially create a UNIX that was free and pet project that known as GNU.

GNU is major project of FSF which was founded in 1984 by Richard Stallman. In addition you should also know that Richard Stallman developed the emacs editor which is commonly used in UNIX/LInux environment.X enhancements for EMACS has been developed by other people as well.

The Linux systems properly referenced to as GNU/Linux Systems Open terminal, launches bash environment now this has been built by FSF under GNU project. Apart from this, some of the basic Linux commands like cp, mv have been developed under GNU project.

GNU project also has GPL or General Public licenses which is governing document for all free software that it protects. It also follows the Copy left methodology or copy left notion instead of copy right. Copyleft says that anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it It says that you can redistribute, modify or make changes to existing software’s protected by the GPL providing that you wont make it proprietary.

So if you’ll make any changes to any software’s protected by GPL, you need to redistribute the changes back to the project or back to the community so others may benefit , modify or study, redistribute. In other words, GPL provides a framework for keeping software free, so that it doesn’t becomes proprietary. And this is all the brain work of Richard StallMan in 1984, as a result of instituting FSF, Massachusetts which creates GNU project which protects GPL.

Another Person reacted dramatically was Andrew Tanenbaum, Professor. He used Unix for teaching C programming.  he created a UNIX clone called Minix. Minix was really cool and was having lot of followers, the source code was open and available however there was a limitation on the source code, unlike the GNU project where the source code is freely available. Minix you could look at the source code but you couldn’t use it. This caused discomfort for many of the peoples including Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvalds trademark the term “Linux” and the operating system seems to be attributed to him or most to his credits. You must know this that Majority of Linux Distro contains software directly from GNU (from FSF). Because of the contents, its been called as GNU/Linux. Linux kernel is been developed by Linus Torvalds. GNU project is been working in developing their own kernel i.e HERD. and one of the distro Mandrake is planning to go for GNU’s kernel HERD in the near future GNU project allows software to be free and remain free and protected by the GPL. You can go through the site, learn more about the Project functions or how it operates

GCC (C compiler) is used for creating applications or binaries in our system is created by GNU.  In our Linux world we tend to get source or the sources of application. In order to use those sources in our system, we need to compile it to binary format. GCC provides the utility necessary for compiling from source “C” to binary “C” for particular architect. GCC is freely available, while the other C compilers can go through a thousands of dollars. This is a great accomplishment of FSF.

You got to know the importance of GNU and FSF in bringing UNIX like capabilities to PC platform to the masses. As PC is available run away, so to create ubiquitous UNIX for masses its a great achievement. Before Unix lookalike was restricted to only select clients enterprise or universities, GNU now in the hands of average person.They could use this GNU/Linux System to create free software’s for the man kind.

So whenever you’ll get a time visit www.gnu.org, do some research on copy left and educate yourself on GNU project.…

Introduction to Linux

What is Linux ?

1. Linux is an operating system

2. Linux is a clone of UNIX operating systems but unlike  many versions of UNIX, most versions of Linux are free
3. Linux was designed to run on a PC
4. Linux is multi-tasking & multi-user
5. Linux is robust and scaleable
6. Linux is stable
7. Linux is open-source
8. Linux is portable (PDA, cell phone, Car, appliances)
9. Linux is secure
History of Linux:
In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland, developed the Linux Kernel. It was released on the internet and was freely available for download. Back in 1983, the Free Software Foundation (www.fsf.org) began developing open-source software to create a free UNIX operating system. This software was called the GNU (guh-noo) utilities. GNU stands for “GNU’s not Unix” Around 1991, the GNU utilities were combined with the Linux Kernel.
Today, most people call this operating system Linux. However, the Free Software
Foundation says that it is incorrect and it should be called GNU/Linux.

You should know that the Linux Source and most applications for it are free of charge. So any company charging you for linux is not charging you for the software but, instead, for the compiling of the software, the packaging and support of the software.GNU Mascot — Mountain Goat (GNU) and Linux Mascot — Penguin (TUX)

When RedHat released its fully package version of Linux with support its popularity took off. Soon after that, commercial vendors like IBM, Dell and HP began pushing Linux on servers. Linux continues to increase popularity more and more mainstream  computer users.

Important Linux Licensing Information:
Linux is the most important part of the Open Source Software Movement. Linux is legally covered by the GNU General Public License (GPL). Open Source Software is free, but it is not in the public domain. It is not shareware either. GPL allows people to take free software and distribute their own versions of the software. However the vendors who sell free software cannot restrict the rights of users who purchase the software. In other words, users who buy GPL software can make copies of it and distribute it free of charge or for a fee. Also, distributors of GPL software must make it clear that the software is covered by the GPL and must provide the complete source code for the software at no cost. Linux is the perfect example of how this is supposed to  work.
 
Types Of Linux Distributions:
A Linux Distribution is a precompiled and pre-packaged version of Linux. It may offer certain features and software applications that others do not. There are over 3000 different Linux Distributions. Here are some of the most popular:
1. RedHat
2. Debian
3. Cent
4. SUSE (Novell)
5. Gentoo
6. Ubuntu
7. Slackware (uses stock kernel)
8. Mandrake
9. Mandriva
 
Linux Clones:
A Linux clone is a Linux version based on a certain distribution. For e.g. Cent OS and White Box Enterprise Linux take the Red Hat Enterprise Linux source and recompile it. This way users get the stability  and benefits of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux code but at no cost.
 
Linux vs Unix:
Linux is Grand Daddy Unix like operating system
Unix is the “original”
Unix is broken down into System V and BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution)
Unix is typically run on larger mini-computers and distributed through commercial
variants like IBM’s AIX and SUN’s Solaris.
However, you can get free UNIX, called FreeBSD.
Linux is made for PCs and lower end servers.
Linux is a type of UNIX.
 
Comparison of Linux Vs Windows: Windows Strengths
1. Better support
2. More software available
3. Easier for new users to use.
4. Professional & commercial development teams
5. Closed source makes it more secure (debatable) Comparison of Linux Vs Windows: Windows Weaknesses
1. Because of its popularity, it is the target
2. Closed source makes modification difficult
3. Cost
4. Stability
 
Strengths and Weaknesses of Linux: Linux Strengths
1. Open Source make it more secure (debatable)
2. costs less (free)
3. Most applications are free
4. Highly portable (on cell phones, in cars, etc)
5. Highly customizable
6. The “networking OS”
Strengths and Weaknesses of Linux: Linux Weaknesses
1. Challenging to learn how to use
2. Can be difficult to install applications and patches
3. Devices are not always supported
4. Applications aren’t always available (debatable)

Discussion of the Free Software Foundation’s Efforts to Deliver Ubiquitous Unix!

 

In 1983 The FSF (Free Software Foundation) began developing Open Source software to create a free UNIX operating system. This software was called the GNU (guh-noo) utilities. GNU stands for “GNU’s not Unix”. Finally The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop the GNU operating system, a complete Unix-like operating system.

Unix-like operating systems are built from a collection of applications, libraries, and developer tools—plus a program to allocate resources and talk to the hardware, known as a kernel.

The Hurd, GNU’s kernel, is actively developed, but is still some way from being ready for daily use, so GNU is often used with a kernel called Linux; here is a list of full GNU/Linux distributions which are entirely free software.

The combination of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux operating system, now used by millions and sometimes incorrectly called simply “Linux”.

The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix!”; it is pronounced g-noo, as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n.

What is Free Software?

“Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not as in “free beer”.

Free software is a matter of the users’ freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software like bluehost coupon.

The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1).

Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.…